Ambulance Providers


EMS and ambulance providers serve on health care’s frontlines. The urgency of their work is matched by the complexity of their operations, regulatory and compliance obligations, financing needs, and relationships with providers, local governments, and others. Hooper, Lundy & Bookman’s exclusive focus on health care law and extensive experience serving EMS clients allow us to address all their legal needs.

HLB works with private, public, and non-profit ambulance, EMS, and specialty care transport providers to guide them through the legal, operational, and financial challenges that intersect with their unique place in the continuum of care. From formation to mergers, provider contracts to fundraising, credentialing to billing compliance, False Claims Act matters to audit defense, we counsel EMS field providers, managers, administrators, and billers on all aspects of their work, whether retained as outside general counsel or to address specific matters and needs.

We have specific expertise and experience in representing California counties in defending their EMS networks from challenges to their exclusivity under the Emergency Medical Services Act, as well as assisting counties in complying with the intricacies of the Act to protect against subsequent attacks.

We leverage the expertise of attorneys who focus their practices on specific aspects of health care law to deliver a full suite of services for our EMS and ambulatory services clients, including:

  • Corporate/organizational matters and corporate governance
  • Divestitures/separations from fire companies
  • Mergers/consolidation of multiple ambulance services
  • Internal Revenue Code Section 501(c)(3) tax-exempt recognition
  • Employment and independent contractor agreements and employment issues
  • Stark Law, anti-kickback, False Claims Act, and fraud and abuse issues
  • Medicare and Medicaid reimbursement
  • Licensing and credentialing
  • Financing and fundraising
  • Contract review and drafting
  • Territorial disputes, Mutual Aid Agreements, and relationships with municipalities
  • Coverage contracts
  • Billing/administrative services contracts
  • HIPAA compliance
  • Records releases and subpoenas
  • Non-emergency van transports and related PUC matters


Lloyd A. Bookman
Founding Partner
Erin R. Sclar